北京航空航天大学2014年翻译硕士英语考研真题

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北京航空航天大学2014year


硕士研究生入学测验试题科目代码:211


翻译硕士英语(共16页)


考生注意:所有答案务必书写在考场提供的答题纸上,写在本试题单上的答题一律无效(本题单不参与阅卷)。

Part I. Vocabulary (30 points in total, 1 point each)

Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence.

1.     The audience disliked the film thoroughly and were by whistling and stamping their feet.

A)    protecting

B)    protesting

C)    projecting

D)    proposing

2.     In our society, a wedding invitation is also an invitation for a gift.

A)    ingenious

B)    intelligible

C)    implicit

D)    inclusive

3.     After taking office, China’s Prime Minister, Zhu Rongji, tried his best to promote the new a

policies.

A)    economic

B)    economical

C)    economy

D)    economics

4.     I called on him the morning after our arrival, and was with his gay, precise manner and obvious power of decision.

A)    inclined

B)    implied

C)    impressed

D)    illustrated

5.     She has a small machine for coffee beans.

A)    breaking

B)    grinding

C)    splitting

D)    crashing

6.     Mr. John had given no that he was intending to resign.

A)    direction

B)    symptom

C)    information

D)    indication

7.     The members in the testing team were quite and could change schedule upon request.

A)    flexible

B)    gentle

C)    sophisticated

D)    shrewd

8.     The tourists through the fog, trying to read what was engraved on the gravestone Shakespeare had chosen for himself.

A)    peered

B)    peeped

C)    glanced

D)    glimpsed

9.     The noise was so faint that you had to your ears to hear it.

A)    stir

B)    strengthen

C)    strain

D)    stride

10.   You should to one or more weekly magazines such as Time, or People.

A)    subscribe

B)    order

C)    prescribe

D)    reclaim

11.   Fred doesn't like white coffee, nor does he like to put cream on his strawberries, because he prefers them .

A)    plain

B)    simple

C)    natural

D)    ordinary

12.   I’ve got a big coffee on the front of my dress.

A)    pore

B)    patch

C)    stain

D)    grease

13.   —Can you take the day off tomorrow?

—Well, I’ll have to get from my boss.

A)    permission

B)    permit

C)    allowance

D)    possession

14.   While the population of the United States includes a great variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds, Japan's population is .

A)    autonomous

B)    homogeneous

C)    ambitious

D)    anonymous

15.   The manager gave her his that her complaint would be investigated.

A)    consent

B)    conception

C)    assurance

D)    insurance

16.   We expect Mr. White will Class One when Miss Jane retires.

A)    take over

B)    take up

C)    take off

D)    take to

17.   She resorted to when she had no money to buy food for her children.

A)    have stolen

B)    steal

C)    stole

D)    stealing

18.   a fine day, we decided to go for a picnic.

A)    Having been

B)    Being

C)    What

D)    It being

19.   In computer programming, this, model is to any of the others we have ever had.

A)    more superior

B)    the more superior

C)    the most superior

D)    superior

20.  No sooner than he realized that he should have remained silent.

A)    the words had spoken

B)    had the words spoken

C)    the words had been spoken

D)    had the words been spoken

21.   The factory manager and secretary our party.

A)    is to attend

B)    are to attend

C)    were to attend

D)    is attended

22.   We can make an exception .

A)    in any case of John

B)    in case of John

C)    in case of John’s

D)    in the case of John

23.   If only I what you wanted!

A)    knew

B)    know

C)    had known

D)    have known

24.   the building did he realize that there was danger everywhere in it.

A)    Upon entering

B)    When he entered

C)    Only after entering

D)    After he had entered

25.   The Brownings have not yet and I doubt whether they will come.

A)    turned in

B)    turned out

C)    turned up

D)    turned to

26.   While driving along the treacherous road, .

A)    my right rear tyre blew out

B)    my right rear tyre had a blowout

C)    I had a blowout on my right rear tyre

D)    I had my right rear tyre blowout

27.   I have given up trying to convince him, there is no point with him.

A)    by arguing

B)    with arguing

C)    for arguing

D)    in arguing

28.   If he hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you here now.

A)    wouldn’t be smiling

B)    won’t smile

C)    couldn’t have smiled

D)    didn’t smile

29.   He’s 26. It’s high time he a trade to make a living.

A)    learn

B)    learns

C)    must learn

D)    learned

30.   The prices of TV sets are about 20% . The manufacturers are almost selling their products cost.

A)    off, at

B)    down, at

C)    less, for

D)    lower, on

Part I. Reading Comprehension (40 points)

Section A:

Directions:There are 3 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. (30 point in total, 2 points each)

Passage One


Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

Computer programmers often remark that computing machines, with a perfect lack of discrimination, will do any foolish thing they are told to do. The reason for this lies, of course in the narrow fixation of the computing machine’s “intelligence” on the details of its own perceptions---its inability to be guided by any large extent. In a psychological deion of the computer intelligence, three related adjectives come to mind: single-minded, literal-minded, and simpleminded. Recognizing this, we should at the same time recognize that this single-mindedness also characterizes theoretical mathematics, though to a lesser extent.

Since science tries to deal with reality, even the most precise sciences normally work with more or less imperfectly understood approximations toward which a shock to mathematicians to lean that the Schrodinger equation(薛定谔方程)for the hydrogen atom, but only an dipole, and relativistic effects; and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations. Physicists, looking at the original Schrodinger equation, learn to sense in it the presence of many invisible terms in addition to the differential terms visible, and this sense inspires an entirely appropriate disregard for the purely technical

features of the equation. This very healthy skepticism is foreign to the mathematical approach.

Mathematics must dial with well-defined situations. Thus, mathematics depend on an intellectual effort outside of mathematics for the crucial specification of the approximation that mathematics is to take literally. Give mathematicians a situation that is the least bit ill-defined, and they will make it well-defined, perhaps inappropriately, but perhaps inappropriately. In some cases, the mathematicians’ literal-mindedness may have unfortunate consequence. The mathematicians turn the scientists’ theoretical assumptions, that is, their convenient points of analytical emphasis, into axioms, and then take these axioms literally. This brings the danger that they may also persuade the scientists take these axioms literally. The question, central to the scientific investigation but intensely disturbing in the mathematical context—what happens if the axioms are relaxed?—is thereby ignored.

The physicist rightly dreads precise argument, since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed, whereas an perturbations of its underlying assumptions.

31. The author discusses computing machines in the first paragraph primarily in order to so which of the following?

(A) Indicate the dangers inherent in relying to a great extent on machines

(B) Illustrate his views about the approach of mathematicians to problem solving

(C) Compare the work of mathematicians with that of computer programmers

(D) Provide one definition of intelligence

32. According to the passage, mathematicians present a danger to scientists for which of the following reasons?

(A) Mathematicians may provide theories that are in compatible with those already developed by scientists

(B) Mathematicians may define situation in a way that is incomprehensible to scientists

(C) Mathematicians may convince scientists that theoretical assumptions are facts.

(D) Scientists may begin to provide arguments that are convincing but imprecise.

33. The author suggests that the approach of physicists to solving scientific problems is which of the following?

(A) Practical for scientific purposes

(B) Detrimental to scientific progress

(C) Unimportant in most situations

(D) Expedient, but of little long-term value

34. The author suggests that a mathematician asked to solve a problem in an ill-defined situation would first attempt to do which of the following?

(A) Identify an analogous situation

(B) Simplify and define the situation

(C) Vary the underlying assumptions of a deion of the situation

(D) Determine what use would be made of the solution provided

35. The author imply that scientists develop a healthy skepticism because they are aware that

(A) Some factors in most situations must remain unknown

(B) Changes in axiomatic propositions will inevitably undermine scientific arguments

(C) Well-defined situations are necessary for the design of reliable experiments

(D) Mathematical solutions can rarely be applied to real problems

Passage Two


Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.

Traditionally, the study of history has had fixed boundaries and focal point-periods, countries, dramatic events, and great leaders. It also has had clear and firm notions of scholarly procedure: how one inquires into a historical problem, how one presents and documents one's findings, what constitutes admissible and adequate proof.

Anyone who has followed recent historical literature can testify to the revolution that is taking place in historical studies. The currently fashionable subjects come directly from the sociology catalog: childhood, work, leisure. The new subjects are accompanied by new methods. Where history once was primarily narrative, it is now entirely analytic. The old questions “What happened?” and “How did it happen?” have given way to the question “Why did it happen?” Prominent among the methods used to answer the question “Why” is psychoanalysis, and its use has given rise to psychohistory.

Psychohistory does not merely use psychological explanations in historical contexts. Historians have always used such explanations when they were appropriate and when there was sufficient evidence for them. But this pragmatic use of psychology is not what psycho-historians intend. They are committed, not just to psychology in general, but to Freudian psychoanalysis. This commitment excludes a commitment to history as historians have always understood it. Psychohistory derives its “facts” not from history, the detailed records of events and their consequences, but from psychoanalysis of the individuals who made history, and produces its theories not from this or that instance in their lives, but from a view of human nature that transcends history. It denies the basic criterion of historical evidence: that evidence be publicly accessible to, and therefore assessable by, all historians. And it violates the basic principle of historical methods: that historians be alert to the negative instances that would refute their views. Psycho-historians, convinced of the absolute rightness of their own theories are also convinced that theirs is the “deepest”explanation of any event, that other explanations fall short of the truth.

Psychohistory is not content to violate the discipline of history (in the sense of the proper mode of studying and writing about the past); it also violates the past itself. It denies to the past an integrity and will of its own, in which people acted out of a variety of motives and in which events had multiplicity of causes and effects. It imposes upon the past the same determinism that it imposes upon the present, thus robbing people and events of their individuality and of their complexity. Instead of respecting the particularity of the past, it assimilates all events, past and present, into a single deterministic schema that is presumed to be true at all times and in all circumstances.

36. Which of the following best states the main point of the passage?

(A) The approach of psycho-historians to historical study is currently in vogue even though it lacks the rigor and verifiability of traditional historical method.

(B) Traditional historians can benefit from studying the techniques and findings of psycho-historians.

(C) History is composed of unique and non-repeating events that must be individually analyzed on the basis of publicly verifiable evidence.

(D) The psychological assessment of an individual's behavior and attitudes is more

informative than the details of his or her daily life.

37. It can be inferred from the passage that one way in which traditional history can be distinguished from psychohistory is that traditionally history usually

(A) views past events as complex and having their own individuality.

(B) relies on a single interpretation of human behavior to explain historical events.

(C) interprets historical events in such a way that their specific nature is transcended.

(D) turns to psychological explanations in historical contexts to account for events.

38. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?

(A) What are some specific examples of the use of psychohistory in historical interpretation?

(B) What is the basic criterion of historical evidence required by traditional historians?

(C) When do traditional historians consider psychological explanations of historical developments appropriate?

(D) What sort of historical figure is best suited for psycho-historical analysis?

39. The author mentions which of the following as a characteristic of the practice of psycho-historians?

(A) The lives of historical figures are presented in episodic rather than narrative form.

(B) Archives used by psycho-historians to gather material are not accessible to other scholars.

(C) Past and current events are all placed within the same deterministic schema.

(D) Events in the adult life of a historical figure are seen to be more consequential than are those in the childhood of the figure.

40. The author of the passage puts the word “deepest” in quotation marks most probably in order to

(A) signal her reservations about the accuracy of psycho-historians5 claims for their work.

(B) draw attention to a contradiction in the psycho-historians' method.

(C) emphasize the major difference between the traditional historians, claims from her opinion of their method.

(D) disassociate her opinion of the psycho-historians’ claims from her opinion of their method.

Passage Three


Question 41 to 45 are based on the following passage

Many literary detectives have pored over a great puzzle concerning the writer Marcel Proust: what happened in 1909? How did Contre Saint Beuve, an essay attacking the methods of the critic Saint Beuve, turn into the start of the novel Remembrance of Things Past? A recently published letter from Proust to the editor Vallette confirms that Fallois, the editor of the 1954 edition of Contre Saint Beuve, made an essentially correct guess about the relationship of the essay to the novel. Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beuve's blindness to the real nature of great writing, found the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments, and allowed these to take over in a steadily developing novel.

Draft passages in Proust's 1909 notebooks indicate that the transition from essay to novel began in Contre Saint-Beuve, when Proust introduced several examples to show the powerful influence that involuntary memory exerts over the creative imagination. In effect, in trying to demonstrate that the imagination is more profound and less submissive to the intellect than Saint-Beuve assumed, Proust elicited vital memories of his own and, finding subtle connections between them, began to amass the material for Remembrance. By August, Proust was writing to Vallette, informing him of his intention to develop the material as a novel. Maurice Bardeche, in Marcel Proust, romancier, has shown the importance in the drafts of Remembrance of spontaneous and apparently random associations of Proust's subconscious. As incidents and reflections occurred to Proust, he continually inserted new passages altering and expanding his narrative. But he found it difficult to control the drift of his inspiration. The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels, from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings, made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently. The beginning of control came when he saw how to connect the beginning and the end of his novel.

Intrigued by Proust's claim that he had "begun and finished" Remembrance at the same time, Henri Bonne: discovered that parts of Remembrance's last book were actually started in 1909. Already in that year, Proust had drafted deions of his novel's characters in their old age that would appear in the final book of Remembrance, where the permanence of art is set against the

ravages of time. The letter to Vallette, drafts of the essay and novel, and Bonnet's researches establish in broad outline the process by which Proust generated his novel out of the ruins of his essay. But those of us who hoped, with Kolb, that Kolb's newly published complete edition of Proust's correspondence for 1909 would document the process in greater detail are disappointed. For until Proust was confident that he was at last in sight of a viable structure for Remembrance, he told few correspondents that he was producing anything more ambitious than Contre Saint-Beuve.

41. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) the role of involuntary memory in Proust's writing

(B) evidence concerning the genesis of Proust's novel Remembrance of Things Past

(C) the influence of Saint-Beuve's criticism on Proust's novel Remembrance of Things Past

(D) Proust's correspondence and what it reveals about Remembrance of Things Past

42. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following are literary detectives who have tried, by means of either scholarship or criticism, to help solve the "great puzzle" mentioned in the 1stline EXCEPT

(A) Bardeche

(B) Vallette

(C) Fallois

(D) Kolb

43. Which of the following best states the author’s attitude toward the information that scholars have gathered about Proust’s writing in 1909?

(A) The author is disappointed that no new documents have come to light since Fallois’s speculations.

(B) The author is dissatisfied because there are too many gaps and inconsistencies in the drafts.

(C) The author is confident that Fallois’s 1954 guess has been proved largely correct, but regrets that still more detailed documentation concerning Proust’s transition from the essay to the novel has not emerged.

(D) The author is satisfied that the facts of Proust’s life in 1909 have been thoroughly established, but believes such documents as drafts and correspondence are only of

limited value in a critical assessment of Proust’s writing.

44. The passage offers information to answer which of the following questions?

(A)What is a theme concerning art that appears in the final book of Remembrance of Things Past?

(B) Precisely when in 1909 did Proust decide to connect the beginning and the end of Remembrance of Things Past?

(C) What was the subject of the novel that Proust attempted in 1908?

(D) What specific criticisms of Saint-Beuve appear, in fictional form, in Remembrance of Things Past?

45. Which of the following best describes the relationship between Contre Saint-Beuve and Remembrance of Things Past as it is explained in the passage?

(A) Immediately after abandoning Contre Saint-Beuve, at Vallette’s suggestion, Proust started Remembrance as a fictional demonstration that Saint-Beuve was wrong about the imagination.

(B) Immediately after abandoning Contre Saint-Beuve, at Vallette’s suggestion, Proust turned his attention to Remembrance, starting with incidents that had occurred to him while planning the essay.

(C) Despondent that he could not find a coherent structure for Contre Saint-Beuve, an essay about the role of memory in fiction, Proust began instead to write Remembrance, a novel devoted to important early memories.

(D) While developing his argument about the imagination in Contre Saint-Beuve, Proust described and began to link together personal memories that became a foundation for Remembrance.

Section B:


Directions: There is one passage in this part. The passage is followed by some questions. Please answer the questions briefly. (10 points)

Deconstruction


Innovations in language are never completely new. When the words used for familiar things change, or words for new things enter the language, they are usually borrowed or adapted from

stock. Assuming new roles, they drag their old meanings along behind them like flickering shadow. This seems especially true of the language of the contemporary school of literary criticism that now prefers to describe its work simply and rather presumptuously as theory but is still popularly referred to as poststructuralism of deconstruction.

The first neologisms adopted by this movement were signifier and signified,employed to distinguish arbitrariness of the term we choose. The use of these particular terms (rather than, respectively, words and thing) underlined the seriousness of the naming process and its claim on our attention. Since in English “to signify” can also mean “to portend,” these terms also suggest that words predict coming events.

With the use of the term deconstruction we move into another and more complex realm of meaning. The most common use of the terms construction and deconstructionis in the building trades, and their borrowing by literary theorists for a new type of criticism cannot help but have certain overtones to the outsider. First, the usage suggests that the creation and critical interpretation of literature are not organic but mechanical processes; that the author of any piece of writing is not an inspired, intuitive artist, but merely a laborer who cobbles existing materials (words) into more or less conventional structures. The term deconstruction implies that the text has beenput together like a building or a piece of machinery, and that it is in need of being taken apart, not so much in order to repair it as to demonstrate underlying inadequacies, false assumptions, and inherent contradictions. This process can supposedly be repeated many times and by many literary hard hats; it is expected that each deconstruction will reveal additional flaws and expose the illusions or bad faith of the builder. The fact that deconstructionists prefer to describe their activities as deconstruction rather thancriticism is also revealing. Criticism and critic derive from the Greek Kritikos, “skillful in judging, decisive.” Deconstruction, on the other hand, has no overtones of skill or wisdom; it merely suggests demolition of an existing building. In popular usage criticism suggests censure but not change. If we find fault with a building, we may condemn it, but we do not carry out the demolition ourselves. The deconstructionist, by implication, is both judge and executioner who leaves a text totally dismantled, if not reduced to a pile of rubble.

Questions:

1. What do you think is the author’s view of deconstructionist thought? (3 points)

2. According to the author, with the use of the term “deconstruction”, what is suggested? Please make a brief summary. (4 points)

3. How is “deconstruction” different from “criticism” as a literary term? (3 points)

Part III. Writing (30 points)

Directions: Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic

The Importance of Team Work
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