2021年托福阅读真题第131pieceDomestication

[Copy link]
see3221 | reply0 | 2022-1-3 20:23:01 | 显示全部楼层 |Reading mode
Domestication
About 10,000 years ago, after nearly 4 million years of human evolution and over 100,000 years of successful foraging for food, human beings, although isolated, nearly simultaneously developed a subsistence strategy that involved domesticated plants and animals. Why? Some scholars seek a single, universal explanation that would be valid for all cases of domestication. Thus, it has been argued that domestication is the outcome of population pressure, as the increasing hunting-and-gathering human population overwhelmed the existing food resources. Others point to climate change or famine, as the post-glacial climate got drier. Increasing archaeological research has made it clear, however, that the evidence in favor of any single-cause, universally applicable explanation, is not strong.
Some scholars have proposed universally applicable explanations that take several different phenomena into account. One such explanation, called the broad-spectrum foraging argument (the argument that humans employed a subsistence strategy based on obtaining a wide range of plants and animals), is based on a reconstruction of the environmental situation that followed the retreat of the most recent glaciers. The very large animals of the Ice Age began to die out and were replaced by increased numbers of smaller animals. As sea levels rose to cover the continental shelves, fish and shellfish became more plentiful in the warmer, shallower waters. The effects on plants were equally dramatic, as forests and woodlands expanded into new areas. Consequently, scholars argue, people had to change their diets from big-game hunting to broad-spectrum foraging for plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering. This broadening of the economy is said to have led to a more secure subsistence base, the emergence of sedentary communities, and a growth in population. In turn, population growth pressured the resource base of the area, and people were forced to eat so-called third-choice foods, particularly wild grain, which was difficult to harvest and process but which responded to human efforts to increase yields.
Although the broad-spectrum foraging argument seems to describe plant domestication in the New World, the most recent evidence from ancient southwestern Asia does not support it. There is also evidence for the development of broad-spectrum foraging in Europe, but domestication did not follow. Rather, domesticated crops were brought into Europe by people from southwestern Asia—where the broad-spectrum revolution had not occurred.
A very different argument comes from Barbara Bender, who argues that before farming began, there was competition between local groups to achieve dominance over each other through feasting and the expenditure of resources on ritual and exchange, engaging in a kind of prehistoric arms race. To meet increasing demands for food and other resources, land use was intensified, and the development of food production followed.
This argument clearly emphasizes social factors, rather than environmental or technical factors, and takes a localized, regional approach. It is supported by ethnography (direct and systematic observations of a human culture) concerning competitive exchange activities, such as the potlatch (traditional celebrations in which groups gather and give gifts) of the indigenous inhabitants of the northwest coast of North America. These people were foragers in a rich environment that enabled them to settle in relatively permanent villages without farming or herding. Competition among neighboring groups led to ever-more elaborate forms of competitive exchange, with increasingly large amounts of food and other goods being given away at each subsequent potlatch. As suggestive as Bender’s argument is, however, it is difficult to find evidence for competitive feasting in archaeological remains.
Recently, archaeologists have avoided grand theories claiming that a single, universal process was responsible for domestication wherever it occurred. Many prefer to take a regional approach, searching for causes particular to one area that may or may not apply to other areas. Currently, the most powerful explanations seem to be multiple-strand theories that consider the combined local effects of climate, environment, population, technology, social organization, and diet on the emergence of domestication.
【Paragraph 1】
About 10,000 years ago, after nearly 4 million years of human evolution and over 100,000 years of successful foraging for food, human beings, although isolated, nearly simultaneously developed a subsistence strategy that involved domesticated plants and animals. Why? Some scholars seek a single, universal explanation that would be valid for all cases of domestication. Thus, it has been argued that domestication is the outcome of population pressure, as the increasing hunting-and-gathering human population overwhelmed the existing food resources. Others point to climate change or famine, as the post-glacial climate got drier. Increasing archaeological research has made it clear, however, that the evidence in favor of any single-cause, universally applicable explanation, is not strong.
1. According to paragraph 1, all of the following have been proposed as the primary cause of the development of subsistence strategies that involved domestication EXCEPT
A. growing population pressure on existing food sources
B. the drying of the climate
C. the movement of human populations to new parts of the world
D. famine
【Paragraph 2】
Some scholars have proposed universally applicable explanations that take several different phenomena into account. One such explanation, called the broad-spectrum foraging argument (the argument that humans employed a subsistence strategy based on obtaining a wide range of plants and animals), is based on a reconstruction of the environmental situation that followed the retreat of the most recent glaciers. The very large animals of the Ice Age began to die out and were replaced by increased numbers of smaller animals. As sea levels rose to cover the continental shelves, fish and shellfish became more plentiful in the warmer, shallower waters. The effects on plants were equally dramatic, as forests and woodlands expanded into new areas. Consequently, scholars argue, people had to change their diets from big-game hunting to broad-spectrum foraging for plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering. This broadening of the economy is said to have led to a more secure subsistence base, the emergence of sedentary communities, and a growth in population. In turn, population growth pressured the resource base of the area, and people were forced to eat so-called third-choice foods, particularly wild grain, which was difficult to harvest and process but which responded to human efforts to increase yields.
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Human efforts to increase yields of wild grains relieved the pressure population growth put on the resource base of
the area.
B. The resource base of the area was pressured by population growth because third-choice foods were difficult to harvest
and process.
C. Although wild grains responded to human efforts to increase yields, they were third-choice foods because they were
difficult to harvest and process.
D. Population growth put pressure on available food resources, forcing people to eat foods that were less preferred but that
responded to human efforts to increase yields.
3. According to paragraph 2, the broad-spectrum foraging argument holds that humans shifted from big-game hunting to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle primarily because
A. they had begun developing more sedentary communities
B. populations required a broader range of food sources
C. it was easier and more effective to hunt smaller animals
D. the very large Ice Age animals had begun to die out
【Paragraph 3】
Although the broad-spectrum foraging argument seems to describe plant domestication in the New World, the most recent evidence from ancient southwestern Asia does not support it. There is also evidence for the development of broad-spectrum foraging in Europe, but domestication did not follow. Rather, domesticated crops were brought into Europe by people from southwestern Asia—where the broad-spectrum revolution had not occurred.
4. According to paragraph 3, there is evidence that broad-spectrum foraging
A. was introduced into Europe by people coming from southwestern Asia
B. never developed in ancient southwestern Asia
C. became well established in Europe only shortly before domestication developed there
D. developed independently in Europe and in southwestern Asia
5. The main purpose of paragraph 3 in the passage’s discussion of domestication is to
A. illustrate why the broad-spectrum argument cannot be applied universally as an explanation of domestication
B. support the importance of broad-spectrum foraging in contributing to the development of domestication in the New World
C. call into question the idea that the broad-spectrum foraging ever led to the development of domestication
D. help explain why domestication and broad-spectrum foraging developed simultaneously
【Paragraph 4】
A very different argument comes from Barbara Bender, who argues that before farming began, there was competition between local groups to achieve dominance over each other through feasting and the expenditure of resources on ritual and exchange, engaging in a kind of prehistoric arms race. To meet increasing demands for food and other resources, land use was intensified, and the development of food production followed.
6. According to the Barbara Bender, what caused prehistoric people to experience “increasing demands for food and other resources”?
A. the manner in which they used land
B. their failure to have developed farming
C. competition among groups to control one another
D. poor food-production techniques, which led to low yields
【Paragraph 5】
This argument clearly emphasizes social factors, rather than environmental or technical factors, and takes a localized, regional approach. It is supported by ethnography (direct and systematic observations of a human culture) concerning competitive exchange activities, such as the potlatch (traditional celebrations in which groups gather and give gifts) of the indigenous inhabitants of the northwest coast of North America. These people were foragers in a rich environment that enabled them to settle in relatively permanent villages without farming or herding. Competition among neighboring groups led to ever-more elaborate forms of competitive exchange, with increasingly large amounts of food and other goods being given away at each subsequent potlatch. As suggestive as Bender’s argument is, however, it is difficult to find evidence for competitive feasting in archaeological remains.
7. According to paragraph 5, the potlatch activities support which of the following ideas?
A. Foragers were able to live in permanent villages without farming.
B. Social factors such as the competitive exchange of food may have led to domestication.
C. Competition among neighboring groups made a foraging way of life preferable to domestication.
D. Increasingly large amounts of food were easily available for competitive exchange.
【Paragraph 6】
Recently, archaeologists have avoided grand theories claiming that a single, universal process was responsible for domestication wherever it occurred. Many prefer to take a regional approach, searching for causes particular to one area that may or may not apply to other areas. Currently, the most powerful explanations seem to be multiple-strand theories that consider the combined local effects of climate, environment, population, technology, social organization, and diet on the emergence of domestication.
8. Paragraph 6 supports which of the following ideas about recent theories of the development of domestication?
A. They are based on the assumption that the causes of domestication are easier to identify in some areas than in others.
B. They focus on identifying the single process that was primarily responsible for domestication in any particular region.
C. They assume that the causes of domestication varied according to different regions.
D. They tend to be poorly supported by archaeological evidence.
【Paragraph 1】
About 10,000 years ago, after nearly 4 million years of human evolution and over100,000 years of successful foraging for food, human beings, although isolated, nearly simultaneously developed a subsistence strategy that involved domesticated plants and animals. Why? ■Some scholars seek a single, universal explanation that would be valid for all cases of domestication. ■Thus, it has been argued that domestication is the outcome of population pressure, as the increasing hunting-and-gathering human population overwhelmed the existing food resources. ■Others point to climate change or famine, as the post-glacial climate got drier. ■Increasing archaeological research has made it clear, however, that the evidence in favor of any single-cause, universally applicable explanation is not strong.
9. Look at the four squares【■】that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture.
Where would the sentence best fit?
10. 【Directions】An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because the express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
About 10,000 years ago, humans living in very different parts of the world nearly simultaneously began domesticating plants and animals.



Answer Choices
A. Some theories aim to explain the emergence of domestication everywhere -- either by a single cause or by the interaction of several phenomena—but none are well supported by the evidence.
B. One scholar does not attribute domestication to environmental or technical factors, arguing instead that it can be explained by a need for ever increasing amounts of food for competitive feasting.
C. One assumption that all domestication theories have in common is that humans began the process that resulted in domestication only because of pressure from growing population.
D. According to the broad-spectrum foraging argument, domestication was developed by human groups to provide a subsistence base that would permit the development of sedentary communities.
E. Theories that take a regional approach to the development of domestication are able to take social factors into account rather than being limited to archaeological evidence.
F. Currently, the most powerful theories focus on a particular area and try to explain the emergence of domestication there by the combined local effect of climate, environment, population, and other factors.
Translated by the Internet, your translation resource information platform, pay attention to the official account [translation information]-Official account:fanyi899
You need to log in before you can reply Sign in | Join now Scan and login on wechat

Integral rules of this edition

27

theme

27

Post

91

integral

Registered members

Rank: 2

integral
91